The Bureau of Statistics has found that the Indigenous population has doubled in Victoria and NSW since 2001, at a far higher rate than the non-Indigenous population. The NSW population has grown from 120,000 to 216,000, while the Victorian population has risen from 25,000 to 47,000. Comparatively, the non-Indigenous population has grown between 15 and 20 percent.
Australian National University associate professor Nicholas Biddle believes this is both due to higher fertility rates and because Indigenous people are now being counted who previously were not. He states that "part of it is the census getting better at counting the population, and part of it is people being more comfortable identifying themselves to a census collector."